French version                                                                                                                     ...by Isa et David

www.toutsurlagrece.com

 

              

                                                        Mythology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

 

At the beginning of the universe, there was only the chaos and darkness. One day, Gaia, the Earth came. As she felt lonely, she created Ouranos, the Sky and Pontos, the Sea.
From that unions, came the Titans and titanides( giant), Cyclopes (giant with the
one eye), Nymphs, Hecatonchides (monsters with 100 arms and 50 heads) and the Olympic Gods....

 

The Titans and Titanides

Born from Gaia, the Earth and Uranus, the Sky, the Titans were 6 brothers : Cronos, Ocean, Coeos, Crios, Hyperion, and Japet and 6 sisters : Rhea, Theia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe et Tethys. They were the kings of the Universe.

Cronos (Saturn) : He fight against his father Uranus and became the king, he get married with his sister Rhea. They had Olympic Gods : Zeus, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Hades. According to the prophecy, he dethroned his father, and would be dethroned too by one of his son. To prevent this possibility to happen, he swallowed each of his children. The 3rd one, was Zeus, which was saved by his mother.

Atlas : Son of Japet the Titan and Clymene the nymph, he was a giant and was the king of the Universe. After a was between the Titans and the Olympic Gods, he was condemned to bear the world on his shoulder for ever.
 

 

There was 12 Olympic Gods                                                  

Zeus (Jupiter) : Son of Cronos and Rhea, king of the Gods on the Olympus Mont, he was the only one child rescued by his mother. Instead of giving to his father the child to swallow, she gave him a stone wrapped by a clothe. Zeus was raised in Creta by the goat Nymph Amalthee, she fed him with her milk. When he became an adult, he wanted to take revenge. With the help of his mother, his father drank a special drink. He vomited all of the children that he swallowed years before. Then a war occurred between the Titans and the Olympic Gods. The Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires helped Zeus, because he helped and rescued them from the Tartar (the Titans linked them with chains in the deep darkness, under the hell by Cronos). The Olympic Gods won the war and throw away the Titans et Cronos in the deep darkness of the Tartar. The Olympic Gods were able to reign in peace.

 

Athena (Minerva) : Daughter of Zeus and Metis (a Titanide), she is the god of intelligence and wisdom, its representation is an owl.

 

 

Poseidon (Neptune) : Son of Cronos and Rhea, he is the God of the Sea.

 

Artemis (Diane) : Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo, she is the God of the hunt and the moon.
Hera (Junon) :  Daughter of Cronos and Rhea, first of the Olympic Goddess, sister of Zeus, she is also his wife.
its representation is the peacock.

Hestia (Vesta) : Daughter of Cronos and Rhea, she is the goddess of the hearth ,she created the art of building homes. Keeping a fire inside a home  was dedicated to her.
Demeter (Ceres) : Daughter of Cronos and Rhea, she is the goddess of the wheat and the harvest, which feed the humans.
She was looking for her daughter Persephone, who was prisoner by Hades, god of the hells, he wanted to marry her.
During 9 days and 9 nights, she was walking on the Earth, without eating, drinking and sleeping. From that moment, nothing was growing on the Earth, and the famine was threaten the humans. Zeus was worried about that situation, and send Herms (mess
enger of the Gods) to Hades, he asked him to let Persephone go home.
Hades was willing to free the daughter of Demeter 6 months p
er year, he would keep her for the other 6 months.
Then, th
e deal brings the Spring and the Fall on the Earth. In the spring, she was free to be with her mother, and the wheat was growing again on the Earth.

Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of the beauty and love. She was born in the mist of the waves and came from the Sea on a carriage carried by swans.
Here is the beautiful venus of Milos.

Hermes (Mercury) : Son of Zeus and the nymph Maïa, he is the god of the sellers and the thieves, he is the messengers of the Gods.

Apollo : Son of Zeus and  Léto (who was the daughter of Titans Phoebe and Coeos). He is the God of the art truth, he is the most beautiful god. He fought against  Python the snake, it was living in a cave in the Parnassus Mont.

Hephaïstos (Vulcain) : Son of Zeus and Hera, he is the God of the fire and the matals

Ares (Mars) : Son of Zeus and Hera,he is the God of the war.

 


The other Gods

Hades (Pluton) : Son of Cronos and Rhea, he is the God of the hells.

Dionysus (Bacchus): Son of Zeus and Semele (human), he is the God of the vine. His mother died by seeing the lightens that Zeus was created, she was carrying the baby Dionysus,
6 months old in her belly, to save the baby and avoid his wife Hera to kill it by jealousy, Zeus cut his leg and hided the baby inside to protect him, Dionysus was born from Zeus's leg.

Eros (Cupidon)Son of Aphrodite and Hermes, he is the God of love

Heracles (Hercules) : Son of  Zeus and Alcmene (human). He is the God of the strength. Hera (Zeus's wife) was very jealous and put 2 snakes
in the bedroom of the childs, in order to kill Heracles and his twin brother Iphicles. But Heracles killed the snakes with his hands. 
Older, He rescued the inhabitants of the enemies.
He get married and had children. But Hera still wanted to kill him and made him crazy,so that he killed his wife and his children by mistake.
When he realized that, he wanted to die, but These told him to go to Delphos and consult the Pithie. To be forgiven, she told him to go to Mycenae,
and be a slave for the king Eurysthe. The king was very jealous too and ask Hercules to realize the 12 works, he was sure that Hercules would die.

The 12 works were :


1) Kill the lion from Nemee
2) kill the hydr
a from Lerne (with 9 heads)
3) kill a wild boar from 'Erymanthe
4) kill the deer from Cerynie (as fast as a wing-horse, with gold hoofs and antlers)
5) clean the stables of the king Augias in a day (the stables were dirty since many years) he divert
ed the seas of the Alphee and the Penee rivers.
6) kill the birds of the lake Stymphale (Athena offered him a gold castanets, he played with it and the noise so hard, that the birds flew away, then he killed them with his arrows)
7) to tame the bull from Creta
8) to tame the horses of Diomede (feed by human fleshes)
9) to stole the belt of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons (by a smile)
10) to bring the bulls from Geryon
11)to bring the gold apples from the Hesperides garden
12) to bring on the earth Cerbere the dog (with 3 heads, keeper of the hells)

By seeing that his cousin was so victorious, he let him go, Hercules was free and forgiven.


The Muses

Born from the love of Zeus and Mnemosyne, they were 9, all very beautiful ,they did not know the sadness, danced, sang, helped the ones who were sad, only thought to have fun.
they inspired the artists.
Calliope was the muse of the poetry and eloquence, Clio, the one of the history, Euterpe, the one of the music, Terpsichore, the one of the dance, Erato, the one of the lyric song, 
Melpomene
the one of the tragedy, Thalie, the one of the comedy, Polymnie, the one of the writing and Uranie, the one of the astronomy.

 

The others Myths and heroes

Thesee was the son of Aethra and Poseidon. Egee, king of Athena was married with his mother. Athens had to pay a tribute to the king of Minos, from Creta : seven young women
and seven young men were given to a monster half man
and half bull, called the Minotaur. Thesee got on board with the young people to free Athens and kill the Minotaur.
Thesee told his adoptive father that if h
e would come back victorious, his ship would have some white sailing, and if he would be dead, his ship would have a black one.
Once he was in Creta,Thesee learnt that the Minotaur was living in a labyrinth, that  Dedale built, no one
could find the exit.
But the daughter of Minos, Ariane felt in love with Thesee, she gave him a linen, Thesee could guide himself by following this linen and killed the Minotaur.
When he came back to Athen
s, he forgot to change the sailing and his father saw the black one flotting. Thinking that his son was dead, he drop himself in the sea.
The aegean sea is bearing his name in memory of Egee.Thesee became the king of Athens.



Thesee against the Minotaur

Icare was the son of Dedale. They were both locked in the Minotaur's labyrinth. Dedale created some wings in wax for his son and himself to escape from the labyrinth,
he warned his son not to fly to close to the sun otherwise he wings could melt, Icare did not listen to the advises, his wings melted and he falled in the sea.
One island is bearing his name. 

 

 

The Pythie had a temple in Delphos, she was known to read the oracles

Odysseus (Ulysses), born on the Ithaque island, he was a young prince, brave and excellent warrior. He wanted to marry the princess Penelope, Ulysses organised his cousin's weeding Helene with the king Menelas. But she was abducted by the army of Troy. He led the battle of troy for 10 years, with Achilles, Hector and Patrocle. He had the idea to build a huge horse in wood where all the soldiers could be hidden inside. The Trojans opened the horse  and Ulysses army fight against them. Athena was angry against Ulysses, because he destroyed one of her temple during the battle. She asked to Poseidon to create a storm on the sea. Ulysses spent 10 years to go back home. He had to fight against a Cyclop, met Calypso, the muse who would not let him go, he fought against the bewitch sirens.
Penelope, was waiting for his return. She told everyone that she could not be married as long as her work was not finished, a weave work). Every night she was undo what she did the day. Pretenders discovered her game and she was obliged to get married, she organised an archery completion . Ulysses was there, disguised as a beggar, he played and won the competition, he could marry
Penelope and live with his son Telemaque.

Homer in the Odyssey wrote his adventures
(Iliad).            

                  

 

Alexander the Great

View of a statue of Alexander the Great in the northern Greek city of Thessaloniki,